• Despite their commitment to Ezra Pound’s commandment to “make it new!:” modernist authors like Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Dorothy Parker, Katherine Mansfield, Edith Wharton, and Thornton Wilder referred to Jane Austen surprisingly often in their public and private writings. Although they excoriated her sexual inexperience and limited scope, they nevertheless referred to Austen as a measuring stick for evaluating modernist women writers. She influenced them in their own published work, and they admired what they perceived as her airy imperviousness to criticism.