• In the aftermath of the Second World War, Italian intellectuals participated in Italy’s reconstruction
    with an ideological commitment inspired by the African-American struggle for equal rights in the
    United States. Drawing on the work of many of the leading figures in postwar Italian culture,
    including Italo Calvino, Giorgio Caproni, Cesare Pavese, and Elio Vittorini, this essay argues
    that Italian intellectual impegno—defined as the effort to remake Italian culture and to guide
    Italian social reform—was united with a significant investment in the African-American cause.
    The author terms this tendency impegno nero and traces its development in the critical reception
    of African-American writers including W.E.B. DuBois, Langston Hughes, and Richard Wright.
    Postwar impegno nero is then contrasted with the treatment of African-American themes under
    Fascism, when commentators had likewise condemned American racism, but had paradoxically
    linked their laments for the plight of African Americans with defenses of the racial policies of
    the Fascist regime. Indeed, Fascist colonialism and anti-Semitism were both justified through
    references to what Fascist intellectuals believed to be America’s greater injustices. After 1945,
    in contrast, Italian intellectuals advocated an international, interdependent campaign for justice,
    symbolizing national reforms by projecting them onto an emblematic America. In this way, impegno
    nero revived and revised the celebrated “myth of America” that had developed in Italy between
    the world wars. Advancing a new, postwar myth, Italian intellectuals adopted the African-American
    struggle in order to reinforce their own efforts in the ongoing struggle for justice in Italy.