I specialize in East Asian religions with a focus on Buddhism in ancient Japan (seventh through ninth centuries). In the most general terms, my research challenges elite-centered narratives that have dominated scholarship on Japanese Buddhism and religious studies more broadly. In contrast, I study Buddhism as it was lived and practiced by individuals and communities from diverse backgrounds. My research and teaching are interdisciplinary; I engage scholarship in history, art history, literature, political science, and book history to explore issues related to ritual studies, material culture, and religion and the state.

My first book, Ritualized Writing: Buddhist Practice and Scriptural Cultures in Ancient Japan , examines the ritual practice of transcribing Buddhist scriptures (sutras). It questions the standard historical narratives of Japanese Buddhism, which have focused exclusively on the ways the state regulated and utilized religion for ideological purposes in the eighth century. Instead, I highlight the activities of individuals from a range of social classes and geographic regions in Japan to show that Buddhist practice was not limited to the throne and fulfilled a variety of social, political, and spiritual roles beyond ideological justification of imperial rule. The book introduces and translates a large number of previously unstudied archival sources in manuscript form, including scriptorium documents and colophons. It argues for a practice-based approach to ritual and reassesses scripture as a category constructed in part through ritual practices.

My second book project focuses on provincial preaching in the ninth century. It considers the social and institutional networks that enabled Buddhism to flourish in ancient Japan, as well as the homiletic strategies and particular doctrines taught on the ground in local communities. It aims to overcome the “great man” approach that has dominated the study of early Heian-period (794-1185) Buddhism with most scholarship to date focusing on two esteemed monks, Kūkai (774-835) and Saichō (767-822). In contrast, my project explores the religious life of the nameless masses living and preaching in provincial villages using both manuscript and archaeological data. In addition to these book projects, I have published in English and Japanese on a variety of other topics including the  nature and structure of East Asian Buddhist canons, nineteenth- and twentieth- century debates over the state’s position relative to religion, sutras produced in China, and the religious practices of scribes and patrons.

I teach undergraduate and graduate students in courses on Japanese religions, mythology, Zen, Buddhism and literature, and theory and method.

I completed my undergraduate studies at Middlebury College in Vermont with a double major in Japanese and Religion. After graduating, I spent two years in Japan as a Coordinator for International Relations on the JET program in Nagano prefecture. I did my graduate work at Princeton University and was a research fellow at Otani University in Kyoto from 2010-2011. I have also had extended stays in other parts of Japan including Yokohama, Nagoya, and Himeji.

I have received generous support for my research from the National Endowment for the Humanities, Fulbright IIE, Japan Foundation, Vanderbilt University Research Scholars Grant, the International College for Postgraduate Buddhist Studies (Tokyo), and others. My 2012 dissertation won the  Stanley Weinstein Prize awarded to the best Ph.D. dissertation on East Asian Buddhism written in North America during the two previous years.

I also edit an online  Guide to Shōsōin Research, where I blog about the Shōsōin. Interviews about my first book can be found in the Authorial Intentions podcast by Chris Benda and on the New Books Network with Luke Thompson.


Ph.D.     Princeton University, Department of Religion, 2012
Dissertation: “Rewriting Nara Buddhism: Sutra Transcription in Early Japan”
Primary advisor: Jacqueline I. Stone; Readers: Stephen F. Teiser and Martin C. Collcutt

M.A.      Princeton University, Department of Religion, 2009

B.A.       Middlebury College, Religion (Honors) and Japanese (High Honors), Magna Cum Laude, 2003

Other Publications

Ritualized Writing: Buddhist Practice and Scriptural Cultures in Ancient Japan. Honolulu: Kuroda Institute Studies in East Asian Buddhism (University of Hawai‘i Press), 2017.


Articles and Book Chapters
“Bukkyō shinkō men kara mita gogatsu tsuitachi kyō gammon no saikō [A Reconsideration of the 5/1 Canon’s Dedicatory Prayer from the Perspective of Buddhist Devotional Practices].” In Jōdai shakyō shikigo chūshaku [Annotated Colophons of Ancient Sutra Manuscripts], ed. Endō Keita. 554-576. Tokyo: Bensei shuppan, 2016.

“Chūgoku Tōdai to Nihon kodai ni okeru shakyō to ‘shōjōkan’ [Purity and Sutra Copying in Tang China and Early Japan].” In Nara Heian jidai: chi no sōkan [Correlation of Knowledge in the Nara and Heian Periods], ed. Nemoto Seiji et al, 91–112. Tokyo: Iwata shoin, 2015.

“States of ‘State Buddhism’: History, Religion, and Politics in Late Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Scholarship.” Japanese Religions 39/1&2 (2014): 71–93.

“Contingent and Contested: Preliminary Remarks on Buddhist Catalogs and Canons in Early Japan.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 41/2 (2014): 221–253.

“Buddhist Manuscript Cultures in Premodern Japan.” Religion Compass 8/9 (2014): 287–301.

“The Scripture on Saving and Protecting Body and Life: An Introduction and Translation.” Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies 27 (2014): 1–34.

“The Discipline of Writing: Scribes and Purity in Eighth-century Japan.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 39/2 (2012): 201–239.

“Mori de maigo: Kaigai kara mita kodai shi [Lost in the Woods: A Foreign Perspective on Early Japanese History].” Shidai Nihonshi 15 (2012): 211–217.

“Texts and Textures of Early Japanese Buddhism: Female Patrons, Lay Scribes, and Buddhist Scripture in Eighth-Century Japan.” Princeton University Library Chronicle 73:1 (Autumn 2011): 9–36.

“Religion and Popular Culture in Japan.” In World History Encyclopedia, Era 4: Expanding Regional Civilizations, 300–1000. Edited by Wilfred J. Bisson. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2011.


Book Reviews

“Review of Heather Blair. Real and Imagined. Peak of Gold in Heian Japan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015.” Journal of Asian Humanities at Kyushu University 2(2017): 137–141.

“Review of From Mulberry Leaves to Silk Scrolls: New Approaches to the Study of Asian Manuscript Traditions, ed. Justin Thomas McDaniel and Lynn Ransom. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015.” Material Religion 12(2016):522–523.


In Progress
“Nettowāku to shite no Tōdaiji [Tōdaiji as a Network].” To be published in Za Gureito Budda Shinpojiumu (GBS) ronshū 14 gō [Papers from the The Great Buddha Symposium, no. 14] (expected publication January 2017).

“Kokka no rekishi jojutsu to shūkyōsha tachi no rekishi”[Historical Narratives of the State and a History of Religious Figures]. To be published in Nihon shūkyōshi [History of Japanese Religions], edited by Yoshida Kazuhiko, Itō Satoshi, Uejima Susumu, and Satō Fumiko   (expected publication 2017).

“Kōmyō” To be published in Brill’s Encyclopedia of Buddhism, edited by Jonathan A. Silk et al.  (expected publication 2017).


American Academy of Religion

Association for Asian Studies

International Association of Buddhist Studies

Society for the Study of Japanese Religions

Shōsōin Monjo Kenkyūkai

Bryan Lowe

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