For those who approach literary study from ecological perspectives, including but not limited to specializing in works and authors that advocate environmental concerns, works insofar as they reflect ecological problems or their solutions, green rhetoric, biosemiotics, green poetics, philosophical biology, deep ecology, interdisciplinary approaches touching upon ecology, anthropology, medicine, material culture, chaos and complexity, or ignorance and uncertainty (these last few answer to the nature of ecology as an intellectual construct with an immensely complex object of study).